12 Principles – 01 Bounce, Squash and Stretch


Regarded by many as the most important principle “Bounce, Squash and Stretch”,  the purpose of which is to give a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects.  This can be applied to simply objects like the bouncing of a ball, also more complex constructions like the muscles on a face when someone is talking.  This can also be taken to the extreme point to create a comical effect.

In realistic animation the most important aspect of this principle is that the volume of the object does not change when squashed or stretched.  If the length of a ball is stretched vertically, its width (in three dimensions, also its depth) needs to contract correspondingly horizontally.

Below is a image showing the different stages of the principle.

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Below is a example that I have created

Below is a animation of a horse running so that you can see how the muscles are moving and how the principles apply to this to



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